23 Kasım 2015 Pazartesi

Mood Disorders

Mood Disorders

The basic defect in affect (afekt) where the suspected disease group, mood disorders (mood disorders) or mood disorders (affective disorder) is called. Mood in this disease disorders emerge in the form of two main tables: the patient’s extreme joy, mobility and size sensation experienced by manic episodes and inability to enjoy life, depression you feel is calm and silent that depression periods. In addition, the symptoms of these two periods, may also occur as mixed together (mixed episode). These periods are usually persistent improvement a few months later but the trend is repetition.
Historical Information
Babylonian, Egyptian, Hebrew and Chinese culture depression (melancholy) and which would be the portrayal of the manic state, for the first time systematically identify the person who, in 400 BC, Hippocrates was. Hippocrates melancholy of ‘black bile tarnishing its effects on the brain of the soul’ as defining the first time, was going through a mental illness also established a relationship between brain biochemistry. The Kapadokya’l the Aretaeus of Cappadocia, the basic features of mania (euphoria, grandiosity, psychomotor excitation) was defined. By mentioning that there may be irritable and may also be added to the table psychotic symptoms he has been coined the concept of current mania in a sense.Furthermore, the mania and melancholy, and their etiology said that they were two different views of a single disease. Settled in medieval thought later in Europe ‘mental disease as a result of the seizure of the body of the devil’ is based on the views, it took the development turning the ancient Greek text of the scientific development of Arab medicine in this period. Ibn Sina, the underlying personality characteristics, mania, and stressed the role of the emergence of different display formats such as melancholy; Imam Ibn father’s melancholy temperament interaction of defects in sperm by adding the description, he has been referred to the role of genetic factors. Islamic and developing the humane treatment approaches to patients with mental In Chinese medicine, the pressure area under torture by the Inquisition and the mentally ill in Europe was so roots, took Despite the Renaissance and 16th century, Vesalius when the first human anatomical dissection, it was forced to pay with life. Nevertheless, the 16th and 17th century appeared generally available in the scientific viewpoint of Aretaeus of Cappadocia. 18th and 19th century, with the emergence of a mental hospital, was born ability to systematically examined patients. Until that time, mania word ‘madness’ when moving with synonyms; melancholy as well, basically as a logic and thought disorder, was used in the sense of the madness. However, in 1840 Esquirol, melancholic and associated symptoms of paranoid basis under a ‘affective disorders’ was the first psychiatrist said he would be lying. This opinion Mausley Anglo-Saxon literature Henry’s ‘affective disorders’ passed by the term. In the early 19th century ‘clinical-anatomical perspective, it began to change the concept and was believed to be the disease’s symptoms of psychiatric illness under the anatomical lesions. However, such a connection gösterilemeyin of this approach, took the concept of downloading from the lesion tissue and organ cells and eventually ‘physiological dysfunction’ took shape. In addition, the ‘act of madness’ divided into pieces, three pieces of mental illness were partitioned and function, that ‘intellectual, emotional and iradesel’ areas, was adopted to meet separately can ill.Thus, intellectual schizophrenia and paranoia; emotional deterioration of mania and depression; iradesel deterioration was in the area of ​​the psychopathy concept will develop.Falret, in 1851, manic, depressed and uncertain time for the normal intermediate periods (intervals) by talking about going as a separate disease, it ‘folie circulaire’ was the name.Three years later Baillarger, but the concept is similar to the interval being the minor who Falret ‘folie a double former was defined. A similar change was also the case for depression: the concept of melancholy in the early 19th century, ‘remain stuck to a particular group of thought’ as indicating a logic and thought disorder, ‘partial’ was considered madness.Esquirol, ‘a glorified grief habit of popular language being used in the sense of melancholy that term should be abandoned, leaving the poet’, an extreme grief, he said that a brain disease associated with this disorder. Delasiauv to ‘this is not merely a mood of constant feelings of depression and excessive’ saying, ‘depression’ in the technical sense of the term was used for the first time. Terms increasingly widespread at the end of the century were gradually ‘mental depression’, the term began to replace the melancholy. Today Kraepelin bipolar disorder can be considered the father of the concept of endogenous psychosis in 1896, two parted as manikdepresif madness and dementia praecox. Meticulous between 1899-1915, at the end of a methodological longitudinal course observation, all the melancholy and mania forms of ‘manic-depressive illness’ title combining, diseases that go with full recovery intervals, can exhibit very different disease forms of the patients during the induction and disease familial loading have shown that he also stressed. However, this clarity saving development SEEM that these limits include all patients were found with several approaches: Bleuler, expanding the concept of the right mood swings of manic-depressive illness of all kinds; the name of the concept of schizophrenia dementia praecox, a vehicle going beyond ending with destruction. Also, in 1900, Wernicke’s only just that in the form of mania or depression, characterized by manic-depressive illness argued that these are different disorders. In 1928, Kleist, ‘unipolar and bipolar disorders brought’ concept.Leonhard 1950s and 60s, Angst, Perris and Winokur, ‘bipolar trending’ manikdepresif different from the disease, ‘unipolar trending’ They speak of a depressive disorder. Also in this period, psychosocial external causes ‘reaction’ is emerging (exogenous) and featured a genetic basis, that arise due to intrinsic biological factors (endogenous) concept of affective disorders were also discussed. Thus, endogenous-exogenous, unipolar-bipolar affective concepts and disorder issues in place of psychological factors, significantly occupied space in the 20th century debate. Ultimately, however, endogenous-exogenous distinction, first out of the manic-depressive illness, transferred into depression, then seen that too much in common, and switch between exogenous and endogenous depression, a conceptual change, a ‘endogenous and exogenous symptom profiles’ means registration. The distinction Uni-bipolar, unipolar and bipolar depressive illness that ended with the adoption of a separate disorder from manic depressive illness. As for the role of psychological factors, psychological factors and ignored the first half of the 20th century extreme defense mechanism ‘reactions disease rather than the concept was being driven forward. In fact, the first American Diagnostic and Classification System in 1952, DSM-I, Meyer and felt the weight of Freud and ‘was referred to manic-depressive reaction. However, the DSM-II in 1967, the manic-depressive illness, a psychological reaction to be very, began to emphasize that related to biological factors. Feign and Spitzer, signs and symptoms of identification and inclusion and exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of disease introduction into their development efforts. These studies Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) ‘s assertion and lead to the emergence of the DSM-III in 1980, the mood brought angle disorder on the current view. Current view representing the DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic and system partitioning approaches are presented in this section.


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